Tuesday, March 6, 2007

Grammatical categories

A grammatical category is a set of syntactic features that
  • express meaning from the same conceptual domain
  • occur in contrast to each other
  • are typically expressed in the same fashion
  • are often subject to agreement constrains
Grammatical categories encompass:
  • Grammatical aspect, which is associated with verbs that express a temporal view of the event or state expressed by the verb
  • Grammatical case, which is determined by the syntactic or semantic function of a noun or pronoun
  • Definiteness, which is concerned with the grammaticalization of identifiability and nonidentifiability of referents
  • Grammatical mood, which is one of the distinctive forms thatare used to signal modality, which in turn is a facet of illocutionary force
  • Noun class, which is a grammatical system that some languages use to overtly categorize nouns
  • Grammatical number, which expresses count distinctions
  • Grammatical polarity, which distinguishes affirmative and negative
  • Tense, which typically marked on the verb, that deictically refers to the time of the event or state denoted by the verb in relation to some other temporal reference point
  • Transitivity, which is the number of objects a verb requires or takes in a given instance
  • Grammatical voice, which expresses the semantic functions attributed to the referents of a clause

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